Second Language and Foreign Language

The term second language, foreign language and target language are often used to refer to the language being learned. Almost all students of EED UMK use Javanese language and Indonesian language in their conversation everyday. It is mean that they learn English as the third language. Cohen (1998:4) states that the term second language is usually used to refer to the language being learned which is spoken in the local community. Foreign language, in the other hand, refers to the language being learned which is not spoken in the local community. The term target language simply refers to that language being learned. English in Malaysia is usually considered as a second language, while in Indonesia it is considered as foreign language. Hence, the English language learned by the students of EED UMK is a foreign language because it is not spoken in the local community.
Another issue which is also important to clarify is the distinction between acquisition and learning. According to acquisition-learning distinction, adults have two distinct and independent ways of developing competence in a second language, i.e. language acquisition and language learning (Krashen, 1987: 10). He furthers states that language acquisition is a subconscious process, a process which is similar to the way children develop ability in their first language. Meanwhile, language learning refers to conscious knowledge of a second language, knowing the rules, being aware of them, and being able to talk about them.
Although according to acquisition-learning hypothesis adults also acquire, some second language theories assumed that adults can only learn (Krashen, 1987:10). Therefore, in relation with the term foreign language, the students of EED UMK are then could be categorized as adults of EFL learners. As adults EFL learners, the have to be aware what they are learning, i.e. English